Martin Niemöller mug
Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (1892 - 1984) was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor. He was initially a supporter of Adolf Hitler but for his later opposition to the Nazis' state control of the churches Niemöller was imprisoned in Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration camps and narrowly escaped execution. After his imprisonment he expressed his deep regret about not having done enough to help the victims of the Nazis.He turned away from his earlier nationalistic beliefs and was one of the initiators of the Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt. From the 1950s on he was a vocal pacifist and anti-war activist and vice-chair of War Resisters International from 1966 to 1972 and was a committed campaigner for nuclear disarmament.